** All the information on this page was gathered from
unless cited otherwise.
OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) focuses on the diseases that can affect animals. These include hips, elbows, cardiac, patella, eyes, genetic diseases and thyroid. It is a database that can store this information to allow breeders and buyers to view the results online by searching an animals name or registered number.
How are the hips evaluated?
OFA uses one x-ray where the dog is placed on its back in dorsal recumbency with the rear limbs extended and parallel to each other. The knees (stifles) are rotated internally and the pelvis is symmetric. Basically they are on their back with legs extended.
OFA classifies hip results into 7 different categories noted below:
(view photos on the OFA website)
Excellent: Superior conformation; there is a deep-seated ball (femoral head) which fits tightly into a well-formed socket(acetabulum) with minimal joint space.
Good: Slightly less than superior but a well-formed congruent hip joint is visualized. The ball fits well into the socket and good coverage is present.
Fair: Minor irregularities; the hip joint is wider than a good hip. The ball slips slightly out of the socket. The socket may also appear slightly shallow.
Excellent, Good, and Fair are accepted within the normal limits and given an OFA number.
Borderline: Not clear. Usually more incongruency present than what occurs in a fair but there are no arthritic changes present that definitively diagnose the hip joint being dysplastic.
Mild: Significant subluxation present where the ball is partially out of the socket causing an increased joint space. The socket is usually shallow only partially covering the ball.
Moderate: The ball is barely seated into a shallow socket. There are secondary arthritic bone changes usually along the femoral neck and head (remodeling), acetabular rim changes (osteophytes or bone spurs) and various degrees of trabecular bone pattern changes
Severe: Marked evidence of dysplasia exists. Ball is partly or completely out of a shallow socket. Significant arthritic bone changes along the femoral neck and head and acetabular rim changes
Borderline, Mild, Moderate, and Severely dysplastic are documented with abnormal results." (OFA.org).
OFA FAIR, GOOD, and EXCELLENT ARE ALL PASSING SCORES AND WITHIN NORMAL LIMITS FOR HIP TIGHTNESS
Elbow dysplasia is a general term used to identify an inherited polygenic disease in the elbow. Three specific etiologies make up this disease and they can occur independently or in conjunction with one another. These etiologies include:
Pathology involving the medial coronoid of the ulna (FCP)
Osteochondritis of the medial humeral condyle in the elbow joint (OCD)
Ununited anconeal process (UAP)
The dog is placed on their side with their leg flexed and bent at the elbow.
When to OFA Test?
OFA does not give official results for elbows & hips to dogs under 24months of age. While a dog may be tessted prior to 24 months of age, any xrays sent in prior to that will be considered "prelims" or preliminary results. The dog will not get a number until they are 24 months. Dogs that are tested with preliminary results are encouraged to retest at 24mo or older.
Eyes, cardiac, and thyroid can be tested after 1 year of age. Eyes must be tested every 12 mo for up to date results.